Thursday, September 3, 2020

BUS 263 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Transport 263 - Essay Example As per the CPSC (Murray), there is an all out expense of up to $3,100 more than 15 years for a table saw whose unique expenses might be just $100 to $300. This cost considers (1) direct clinical expenses, yet more critically (2) legitimate expenses for the inescapable claims which surface over real injury. What isn't included in the expense is the legitimate cost brought about by the makers, regardless of whether they win the case. Before, Quik-Cut could contend in close to home injury cases that its clients were utilizing cutting edge innovation at their own hazard. Later on, the organization has less legitimate contentions. Regardless of whether it decides to offer the stop innovation at an extra value, there is a hazard that the jury would discover Quik-Cut obligated for not introducing the development on the entirety of its items. The leader of Quik-Cut has a decision at present: grasp the innovation and look for an upper hand for a while, or work with the remainder of the business to stonewall the development, in any event for a while. A third alternativeâ€design around itâ€may or may not work. Structure around It: The organization would build up its own innovation, yet that would require significant investment and maybe mastery that the organization doesn’t have. Moreover, if a contender acquainted the innovation earlier with Quik-Cut offering it for sale to the public, the organization may confront the equivalent legitimate problem it faces today. Stonewall the creation. This would necessitate that all the manufacturersâ€large and smallâ€hew to the business line. In the event that Quik-Cut and its rivals decided not to present the creation, they could build a case on specialized benefits representing why the innovation was not yet fit to be actualized. The two risks to this methodology are (1) there could be a later revelation technique as a piece of an item obligation claim that could uncover the industry’s

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Neurobiological Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury on At-Risk

Neurobiological Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury on At-Risk Neurobiological Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury on At-Risk Populations All through youthfulness, the cerebrum isn't full fledged. The development happens in Executive Functioning. Official working is your capacity to design, sort out, and to concede moment satisfaction. Its like the airport regulation focus of the mind (Executive Function Self-Regulation, 2015, p. 1. It assists with managing certain cerebrum errands to make preparations for incautious choices. It assists with seeing the 10,000 foot view so you can shape various theories. With official working, everythings not high contrast. In young people, this type of cerebrum working isn't full grown during that stage. The official elements of the mind are not full grown and complete until about the age of 25 (Understanding the Teen Brain , n.d., p. 1. Children can think coherently so when theyre fifteen and sixteen they truly realize how to think legitimately yet they dont settle on sensible choices. This is a result of the absence of arrangement inside the official capacity of the cerebrum. On the off chance that a high schooler is harmed during this phase of their formative years, it might be annihilating for them. This is on the grounds that it would change the manner in which they see their reality and their place in it. This could have genuine ramifications for a young person. Indeed, even a gentle mind injury or MBI. A post-blackout may take 2 years for a young person to recuperate. Be that as it may, a progressively moderate or serious physical issue my not be completely figured it out. This might be valid for an adolescent. A young person who has encountered a mind injury not have had past physical handicaps yet they realize that something has changed, something is distinctive about them. The immature stage brings its own arrangement of difficulties. Indeed, even a high schooler with no past physical or emotional wellness history needs to ponder a modification period. During this pre-adult phase of improvement, the teenager is attempting to discover what their identity is, the place they fit in and how to adapt to peer pressures. A young people objective at this phase of their youthful years is to discover what their identity is. Its difficult to envision at 16 years old or 17 how a mind injury can change your life definitely. As an adolescent, they have started to discover their place in school, their place with loved ones . They may wager considering school or a profession, what they need to do with their life and a physical issue of this extent totally transforms them, until the end of time. The injury changes the manner in which they think, the manner in which they respond, the manner in which they regularly would take a gander at a circumstance. In spite of the fact that they may not see completely, they realize that something is unique however may think that its hard to concede in light of the fact that they will likely fit in. They might be frantically attempting to discover what their identity is and battle with their new reality, one don t completely grasp. Some way, something has transformed you. They may arrive at a point where they dont even know who they are any longer.. Companions are acting distinctively towards them (be it genuine or envisioned), guardians respond diversely to them. Assignments that once finished easily with no issue or much however given to it, turns into a battle. Ideas and mechanics of ADLs become strenuous. Things that they could control previously, presently they cant. Dissatisfaction sets in and the youngster begins to carry on in manners they never would have. Circumstances they and undertakings once aced, turns into an errand. Their examination propensities have changed. They might not have needed to concentrate hard and tests may have been a breeze for them beforehand. Be that as it may, not currently. Words dont appear to bode well any more. The star competitor has deftness issues just as following complex plans from playbooks. Moderate Brain Injuries and Traumatic Brain Injuries ar e destroying for teenagers up to the age of 25 at this phase of their turn of events. Elements of the Lobes of the Brain The frontal projection the parietal flap the transient projection occipital and the cerebellum related with the frontal flap or different control they control sure of our practices and when is harmed that a specific results changes that are seen when there is a physical issue to frontal projection incorporate issues with sequencing, trouble settling on choices or perseveration. Somebody can encounter choices individuals experienced diminished consideration, changed character, critical thinking troubles, a decline in their capacity to verbally communicate. An absence of immediacy and wild feelings, social and sexual practices diminished commencement of willful developments. The progressions that we see when worldly flap is harmed is that individuals an issue understanding the expressed word. They have issues with specific consideration. There can likewise be sexuality changes. sexuality changes. An individual with a transient flap injury might be found to relentlessly talk. With a fle eting projection injury, there is an expansion in forceful conduct. They have issues perceiving faces, recognizing objects and arranging them. The parietal flap is a region of the mind that where there is a more elevated level of working. Injury to the parietal projection can cause trouble naming articles. There can be issues preparing their material sensations (the feeling of touch) and issues handling and understanding what their fingers are letting them know. A people scholastic range of abilities decreases because of a physical issue to this piece of the mind. Things that they were effectively ready to do in the working environment or in the scholarly setting from a subjective point of view are currently decreased or gone. Theres likewise disarray between the left and the right, lost deftness and a decline direction of where the body is from a spatial point of view. Harms to the occipital projection is the place issues of vision deserts, the loss of the visual field. One may likewise have issues outwardly finding objects. Critically, they may likewise have issues recognizing hues. They may likewise have contorted vision and even mind flights. They can likewise have what some call word visual deficiency. There is an extra test of the failure to see the manner in which items move. It would not be outlandish to interface issues with perusing and writing considering a physical issue of this extent. One may encounter a general easing back of our minds preparing visual data. Presently for the cerebellum, the territory situated in the back at the base of the mind and on the spinal segment. With the cerebellum, there are various things that are progressively similar to territories of claim to fame, things that our cerebellum accomplishes for us every single day. It controls the gross and fine engine coordination. At the point when we choose, we need to connect and snatch a container off the rack, we put our arm out and do it. That is the cerebellum in real life. We are adjusting our balance, the capacity to stand up and not fall over. The cerebellum enables us to have the option to ride a skateboard, bike or to go for a run down the square. Our postural (causes unsteadiness from standing up too fast)control and our eye developments, moving our eyes to and fro all over and using our eyes to get visual data with the goal that it very well may be prepared by our cerebrum. The brainstemcontrols such an extensive amount what occurs in our body. It controls such huge numbers of the various capacities that permit us to make due as individuals. It is a region of the cerebrum that truly, we underestimate and we ought to have the option to underestimate it. In any case, when it gets harmed through a mishap or whatever, the brainstem and the wounds that stream from that have awful results. At the point when an individual has a physical issue to the brainstem we see the harm to the guideline of our capacity to hold our internal heat level. It should be kept at a sound temperature rather than getting excessively hot or excessively cold. We can lose the capacity with a physical issue to the brain stem, productive and compelling administration of our pulse or the rate at which we relax. Somebody with wounds to their brainstem likewise experience issues with balance and their development. They have issues with gulping food and fluid, something every one of us ought to have the option to underestimate yet a physical issue to the brainstem would renounce that benefit. Brainstem wounds traditionally can be related with side effects of vertigo where the world twists. Regularly, its wild and unfixable. Theres wooziness and queasiness. In outline, the various flaps of the mind do numerous psychological conduct and social capacities as far as all the various parts of our real life of our enthusiastic life. I have summed up the projections of the cerebrum to delineate the manner in which we think, the best approach to process data, down to bigger effects of wounds to the mind. Discussing the brainstem represented elements of how we swallow food, how our body controls our temperature, etc. The key point in depicting the various regions of the mind and the various capacities can be summarized along these lines. At the point when any of the flaps of our mind are, harmed or harmed either unintentionally, by a driver, by a medication, or by a Dr there are loathsome outcomes that are certain. References Official Function Self-Regulation. (2015). Focus on the Developing Child at Harvard University. Recovered from capacity/ Understanding the Teen Brain . (n.d.). In University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester, NY (Ed.), Health Encyclopedia. Recovered 0February 27, 2017, from Straight, E., Mclean, S. A. (2007). Mellow Traumatic Brain Injury. Diary of Neuroscience Nursing,39(1), 43-51. doi:10.1097/01376517-200702000-000090692

Friday, August 21, 2020

Chapter 4 Account Titles and Preparation of Financial Statements Free Essays

Part 4 : Account Titles and Preparation of Financial Statements| Article 14 : The monetary record things shallbe classified as follows: 1. Resources. (1) Current resources. We will compose a custom exposition test on Part 4 : Account Titles and Preparation of Financial Statements or then again any comparative subject just for you Request Now (2) Funds and long haul speculations. (3) Property, plant and gear. (4) Depletable resources. (5) Intangible resources. (6) Other resources. 2. Liabilities. Article 15 : Current resources mean unlimited money and money identical, transient ventures, and different resources that are convertible to money or used inside one year. Arrangement and assessment of current resource titles alongside required logical notes are as per the following: 1. Money and Cash proportionate: money close by, stores with banks, money for rotating use, trivial money, and present moment and exceptionally fluid venture that can be changed over into a fixed measure of money with premium variance having little effect subsequently, barring those effectively saved for use or confined by law or agreement; the record nature and required notes are as per the following: (1) Non-request stores with development longer than a year will be indicated. 2) Time stores (counting debatable testaments of store) will be renamed as different resources whenever gave as lien to a drawn out risk or as other current liabilities whenever gave as lien to a present obligation, and will be determined in the notes for the reality of collateralization. Refundable store shallbe delegated a present or other resource by the long-or transient nature, and will be indicated in the notes. (3) Compensating balances will be delegated current resources if emerging from transient advances, or renamed as different resources or long haul ventures if emerging from long haul liabilities. 2. Transient venture: characterized as speculation that is present moment; the nature of titles and assessment thereof and the necessary logical notes are as per the following: (1) Financial resource with change in reasonable worth being recorded as increases or misfortunes and monetary resource ready to move will be esteemed utilizing the reasonable incentive on the asset report date; the reasonable estimation of recorded or OTC stock and vault receipts demonstrate the end cost on the accounting report date. 2) Financial resources which should be undercuts inside a timeframe, in this manner changing in reasonable worth and acquiring an increase or misfortune, must be reflected in the budgetary resources records or while deciding how to quantify the additions or misfortunes, you settled on utilizing reasonable incentive to mirror these adjustments in reasonable worth, these figures should likewise be reflected in your money related resource records. 3) Financial resource ready to move w ill mean the non-subordinate money related resources other than the budgetary resources with change in reasonable worth being recorded into increases or misfortunes, which monetary resources are to be held until the date of expiry. 4) Short-term speculations gave as a lien, security or refundable store will be recorded as a momentary venture if the risk for such a venture is given as an assurance; if a transient speculation is given as an assurance to a drawn out obligation, such speculations shallbe recorded as long haul ventures. Realities with respect to the guaranteeshall be indicated in either case. 3. Supporting money related resources: characterized as the monetary resources set up in supporting bookkeeping, which are utilized as viable supporting devices, will be estimated by reasonable worth and partitioned into current and non-current as indicated by the liquidity of the things to be supported; non-current supporting budgetary liabilities will be recorded as supporting money related liabilities under different resources. 4. Notes Receivable: characterized as different notes which are gathered by the business substance. The bookkeeping nature, valuation and required notes are as per the following: (1) Shall be esteemed at the current worth, or might be esteemed at the presumptive worth if developing inside one year. (2) Notes receivable that were limited or moved to others will be deducted and indicated. (3) Notes receivable emerging from activities will be introduced independently from those not emerging from tasks. 4) Large-aggregate notes receivable from related people will be introduced separately. (5) Notes receivable that are given as security will be indicated in the notes. (6) Notes receivable resolved to be uncollectible will be discounted. (7) Notes receivable will be esteemed at shutting for the uncollectible sum, and any remittance for the uncollectible sum will be appropriately given and introduced as the contra record of the notes receivable. 5. Records Receivable: characterized as the case of the business element emerging from selling products or administrations; the bookkeeping nature, valuation and required notes are as per the following: (1) Shall be esteemed at the current worth or might be esteemed at the book esteem if developing inside one year. (2) Large-total records receivable from related people will be introduced separately. (3) Unrealized intrigue incomes from portion deals will be introduced as the contra record of the records receivable. 4) Accounts receivable to be gathered more than one year, will be indicated in the notes for the measure of anticipated assortment of every year. (5) â€Å"Designated Collateralized Accounts Receivable† will be revealed in the notes. (6) Accounts receivable that incorporates receivables from a drawn out development contract will be introduced and indicated in the notes for the saved bit that has been charged in accordance with the development account. Where the normal assortment of the saved sum runs recent year, the normal measure of assortment for every year will be determined in the notes. (7) Accounts receivable decided as uncollectible will be discounted. (8) Accounts receivable will be esteemed at shutting for the uncollected sum, and a recompense for the uncollectible sum will be appropriately given and introduced as the contra record of the records receivable. . Different Receivables: characterized as the receivables that don't have a place with the classes of receivables in the first section; the record nature, valuation and required notes are as per the following: (1) Other receivables surpassing five percent of the whole of current resources will be introduced independently naturally or object. 2) Other receivables will be esteemed at shutting for the uncollected sum, and a stipend for the uncollected sum will be appropriately given and introduced as the contra record of the receivables. Where the receivables are groupe d more noteworthy detail, , the remittance account will likewise be introduced in like manner. 7. Inventories: characterized as product or merchandise, either completed products or side-effects available to be purchased in ordinary activities alongside products that are work-in-procedure to be sold upon fruition, or crude materials or supplies utilized straightforwardly or by implication in the creation of merchandise (or administrations) available to be purchased; the record nature, valuation and required notes are as per the following: (1) Inventories will be esteemed utilizing the lower of cost or market value strategy. 2) Inventories with deformity, harm or out of date quality causing a conspicuous decrease in esteem will be esteemed dependent on the net feasible worth. (3) Inventories that are given as lien or assurance, whose use is managed by leasers, and so on will be indicated. 8. Prepayments: characterized as different expenses and costs paid ahead of time. With special case for reserves required by contract for the acquisition of fixed resources and development assets for incomplete development reserves, which should both be ordered as fixed resources. 9. Other Current Assets: characterized as present resources that don't have a place with the past seven classifications of current resources. In any case, any of the past classes of current resources, except for money, not surpassing five percent of the whole of current resources might be converged into other current resources. Article 16 : Funds and long haul ventures are characterized as the different supports put in a safe spot for operational purposes and long haul speculations utilized by the business for unique purposes; the record classes, valuation and required notes are as per the following: 1. Assets: characterized as resources accommodated specific purposes, including sinking assets, improvement and development reserves, possibility misfortune reserves and other related shared assets. The goals and usage technique on which apportionment of the assets is based will be determined. 2. Long haul Investments: characterized as speculations of a drawn out nature, for example, interest in different endeavors, acquisition of long haul securities or interests in land or other related ventures; the record nature, valuation and required notes are as per the following: (1) Long-term speculations will be determined for the valuation premise and will be introduced independently commonly. (2) The bookkeeping treatment of long haul value ventures esteemed by value strategy will follow the arrangements of the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. declared by the Accounting Research and Development Foundation of the Republic of China (hereinafter alluded to as the â€Å"Statement of Financial Accounting Standards†). (3) The bookkeeping treatment of long haul value ventures not esteemed by the value technique will follow the arrangements sketched out in the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 34. (4) Long-term ventures that are given as lien or subject to limitations, constraints, and so forth lobby be indicated. (5) Long-term value ventures estimated by cost implies the individuals who have the accompanying protections without material effect or the subordinate items moving alongside such protections and convey through such protections: 1. Value protections that are not exchanged at the stock trade or not exchanged over the OTC. 2. Developing stock. (6) Financial resources in held-to-development: characterized as non-subordinate money related resource with fixed or decided assortment sums and date of expiry, which business have aggressi

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Various E-Marketing Tools - Free Essay Example

Introduction The spectacular development of the internet has triggered much interest in different areas such as marketing. Businesses are experimenting with this new type of technology to support their commercial activities. There are various e-marketing tools available to e-marketers. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast various e-marketing tools currently being used by e-marketers. In order to achieve this objective, this paper will discuss the following four e-marketing tools that are being used widely: search engine optimisation, pay per-click, Web 2.0, and online social networks. Finally this paper will draw conclusions from the discussions. Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) SEO is a way of building traffic via organic search results. The content will rank higher in the search engines if it is better and more popular (Suarez, 2005). Hard work and dedication are required for this type of online marketing, because its a long and arduous process to position the website and its content at the top of the search engine page (Palmer and Koenig-Lewis, 2009). No website really ventures past the first page of any search engine, but if the website is optimised for SEO, then it will begin to appear more obviously on the first page of search engines like Google (Whitla, 2009). Consumers respect and trust organic results more as sources of information than paid search results; consequently they are more likely to click on an organic result compared to a paid search result (Trusov et al., 2009). A study showed that 95% of search engine users chose to click on organic results, while only 6% clicked on paid results (Wang and Zhang, 2012). This divergence can be expl ained by the fact that many search engine users have selective blindness towards paid search results (Jobber, 2010). The mind of a search engine user considers organic results that appear at the top of the search engine results page as credible. This depicted credibility gives the user faith in the content, products and services (Pang and Lee, 2008). If the content is relevant even after a long period of time and a search engine still ranks it high because of optimisation, then the content will stay at the top of the search engine results page for a very long time (Armbrust et al., 2010). Therefore, SEO is a means to keep the content pertinent and at the forefront of the companys target audience long after they were created. This is why, SEO is better than Pay-Per Click (PPC), because PPC will fall off the radar engines once the payment of fees is stopped (Armbrust et al., 2010). Armbrust et al. (2010) argue that the return on investment of the website will continue to rise with SEO, whereas with PPC it will reach a certain point and then become stagnant. This is because SEO pages click through-rates continue for an extended period of time, whereas PPC only has the ability to funnel clicks and convert them to sales for a short period of time. Once the payment of fees for PPC is stopped, the click through-rates will fall and the return on investment will drop proportionately. Boa-Ventura and Zagalo (2010) suggest that start-up businesses with shoestring budgets should go for SEO to promote their contents, because SEO is free of charge. Pay-Per Click PPC is a way of presenting the content to the target audience by paying for advertising space in the sponsored results section of search engine results page (Bruns, 2008). The company pays a fee for the click, once a viewer clicks on the advert and arrives on the web page. PPC can be done through various advertising networks like Google AdWords, Yahoo Advertising Marketing, Google AdSense and infolinks. PPC produces instant results, whereas SEO takes time and commitment before results begin to appear (Bampo et al., 2008). This is because, once the fees for PPC is paid, the link to the website will appear on the first page of the search engine. If a company wants to promote time sensitive contents such as product and service offers, the PPC is the most effective way of diverting consumers to the companys website (Clarke, 2008). Moreover, PPC enables a company to get its content out when the market is full of authority websites that even the most effective SEO cannot displace (Bam po et al., 2008). The conversion rates of PPC are higher than SEO, because search engine users who click on paid advertisement have the intention to make a purchase (Cook, 2008). This means visitors who arrive at the website through a paid advertisement are more likely to buy the companys products than those arriving through organic results. Also, calculation of the return on investment of the website is easier with PPC than with SEO (Armbrust et al., 2010). PPC allows the website to be promoted only to target segments. With PPC, it is possible for a company to market its products or services to people based on their gender, age, education level, income bracket and marital status (Easley and Kleinberg, 2010). Therefore, the companys financial resources are not wasted advertising on the website to visitors who are uninterested in the products and have no intention to make a purchase. With SEO, a website can lose its ranking if the SEO algorithms used by search engines are updated (Cook, 2008). Cook (2008) claims that PPC is not in any way affected by SEO algorithm updates. He goes on to argue that companies using PPC do not need to worry about losing traffic and the revenue that is generated by that traffic. Web 2.0 Blogs, wikis, RSS and social references are examples of internet technology and applications that are referred to as Web 2.0 (Turban et al., 2008). Web 2.0 expands social users and business participants experience, knowledge and market intelligence (Mata and Quesada, 2014). It does so through online applications that are open-source, interactive and user controlled. Web 2.0 supports informal user networks creation through the facilitation of ideas and knowledge flows, thus allowing generation and dissemination of market intelligence (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Various Web 2.0 applications are used to allow the exchange of information between users (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). For example, websites allow the presentation of information, blogs allow various authors to post items or texts in chronological order on the same website, wikis allow collaborative creation and editing of web pages, chats allow synchronous conversation over the internet, RSS or atom syndic ation mechanisms allow retransmission of web information sources, podcasts allow distribution multimedia files, and mashups allow amalgamation of content from various websites (Mata and Quesada, 2014). Examples of websites using Web 2.0 applications include: Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Google Docs, LinkedIn, Picasa, Skype, Twitter, Wikipedia, WordPress, and YouTube. These sites allow users to directly create and share information in various forms such as text, photos, and videos, hence facilitating communication and interaction between users (Mata and Quesada, 2014). Surowiecki (2004) describes collective intelligence as peoples knowledge and experience that those people gain and share within social contexts. The exploitation of collective intelligence is the most important aspects of Web 2.0 applications. Companies which exploited collective intelligence survived the dot-com bubble and now lead the Web 2.0 era (OReilly, 2007). However, Turban et al. (2008) question the collective intelligence in Web 2.0 applications due to lack of ability to verify the quality of the content and integrity of the users. Turban et al. (2008) argue that there is a risk that Web 2.0 applications may harness some poor quality information created and shared by its users. The above argument derives from the reality that maintaining editorial control over information created and shared on the internet is extremely difficult. Mata and Quesada (2014) argue that despite the lack of editorial control, the risk of poor quality information is manageable, especially in Web 2.0 sites that have high volume of users and specialise in providing information services. A study carried out by Giles (2005) established that the quality of information posted on Wikipedia is as good as those of the Encyclopaedia Britannicas. Moore (2009) echoes with this conclusion and reports that the Encyclopaedia Britannica has decided to let the public write articles in its online edition because of the success a nd popularity of Wikipedia. Online Social Networks An online social network is a web-based service that allows users to: 1) create a personal profile, 2) connect their profiles with other individuals profiles with whom they have formed social relationships both online and offline, and 3) view profiles linked to their connections, recursively (Boyd and Ellison, 2007). Boyd and Ellison (2007) state that an online social networks aim is to enable its users to articulate and make clear their existing offline social networks online, not the possibility to meet new people. Therefore, online social networks main purpose is to facilitate communication and relation among their users who are part of those social contexts (Mata and Quesada, 2014). Online social networks have received much attention because they have made the real social networks more visible and quantifiable, and also they have been accepted as important tools of mass communication, especially to influence others, create and disseminate news (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008 ; Boyd and Ellison, 2007). Web 2.0 has already demonstrated that its consequences are beyond technology and it has an effect on consumers, which affects strategy and marketing (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Therefore, from a marketing point of view, it is important to analyse online social networks effect on businesses. McAfee (2009) states that groupware or CSCW (computer-supported collaborative work) is a common perspective that relates to the use of online social networks in business. Ellis et al. (1991) claim that groupware enables communication, collaboration, and co-ordination, which is called the 3C model. To explain the use of online social networks for marketing, the following two perspectives are useful: market perspective and community perspective. This paper will only discuss market perspective because community perspective is not as evident in e-marketing as market perspective these days. The market perspective considers the number of users on high traffic o nline social networks as a potential market. Several such networks have tremendous amount of users, which presents valuable opportunities for businesses to promote their brands and products (Mata and Quesada, 2014). An analysis of 47 Web 2.0 case studies carried out by Dooley et al. (2012) concluded that market perspective related principles, such as behaviour change, segmentation and targeting, are evident in those cases. Therefore, the market perspective seems to be in widespread use when considering Web 2.0 applications for marketing. However, it is very important to recognise that not all consumers have accepted online social networks. Young consumers are the main users of online social networks, followed by mainstream online consumers and professionals who have realised that Web 2.0 applications empower them (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Furthermore, most existing online social networks have target segments and they still attend to those segments despite all the chang es that they have gone through in recent times (Rysdam, 2010). Target segments of Facebook and LinkedIn are university students and professionals, whereas target segment of MySpace is young people which are music fans (Boyd and Ellison, 2007). Therefore, it is very important to understand the target demographics of online social networks in order to properly use them according to the market perspective (Mata and Quesada, 2014). Conclusion This paper suggests that start-up businesses with shoestring budgets should choose SEO to promote their products and services. However, companies which have financial resources and want to carry out highly targeted campaigns should go for PPC. SEO offers long term search marketing on a budget, while PPC generates quick traffic streams that are required for high converting products. This paper finds that Web 2.0 is only useful if it exploits collective intelligence that is of good quality. 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Boyd, D.M. and Ellison, N.B. (2007) Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 210-230. Bruns, A. (2008) Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and beyond: From Production to Produsage, New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Clarke, R. (2008) Web 2.0 as syndication, Jou rnal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research (JTAER), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 30-43. Constantinides, E. and Fountain, S. (2008) Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues, Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 231-244. Cook, N. (2008) Enterprise 2.0: How Social Network Will Change the Future of Work, Hampshire: Gower Publishing. Dooley, J., Jones, S.C. and Iverson, D. (2012) Web 2.0: an assessment of social marketing principles, Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 207-221. Easley, D. and Kleinberg, J. (2010) Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World, Cambridge: University Press. Ellis, C.A., Gibbs, S.J. and Rein, G.L. (1991) Groupware Some issues and experiences, Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 38-58. Giles, J. (2005) Internet encyclopeadias go head to head, Nature, vol. 438, no. 7070, pp. 900-901. Jobber, D. (2010) Principles and Practice of Marke ting, London: McGraw-Hill Education. Mata, F.J. and Quesada, A. (2014) Web 2.0, Social Networks and E-commerce as Marketing Tools, Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research, vol.9, no.1. McAfee, A. (2009) Enterprise 2.0: New Collaborative Tools for your Organizations Toughest Challenges, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Moore, M., (2009) Encyclopaedia Britannica fights back against Wikipedia, Telegraph, Online. Available at: [accessed on 24/5/2015]. OReilly, T. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Animal Advertising And Its Effects On The Marketing World

Tyler Faden Rough Draft Animals in Advertising Intro Advertisers have tried a variety of tactics to gain their viewers attention. One tactic that seems to have struck a chord in the marketing world is the use of animals. Additionally, most people find animals captivating and part of nature (1). As a result, this has become common practice to help increase sales, creating an affinity towards a brand with the use of animals. Brand identity however is not the only reason animals are used in marketing. The use of animals in advertising encompasses a multitude of psychological aspects including behavioral, neurological, and emotional components. Thus, this study examined the use of animals in current advertisements Psychological components:†¦show more content†¦Specifically, when violence or sex was included, the participants remembered more television commercials and had better recall of the product/service being advertised (5). Similar results were found when emotion was included in advertisements. That is, when emotion was used in the advertisement, consumers increased their buying behavior of the product/service (6). Introducing animals The main way animals are able to exhibit these traits is through the use of visual representation. Visual images help the viewer understand brand identity and helps increase the advertisements effectiveness in terms of sales. The effectiveness however of an image must become associated with a brand first for its effectiveness to become profound. Underwood and Schulz suggested that â€Å"paired-associative learning is the basis of the product-brand name link and must be acquired before it can be effective in advertising† (7). This pairing of brand and image is therefor the first step in creating a successful marketing campaign. Marketers hope that once this relationship has been forged, simply seeing the image will increase sales. Images may vary in their directness towards the product. They may be the main image or in the background. 1st Example: Spears and Germain viewed animals in advertising and their results revealed that animals were used to dictate the spirit of each decade. One example includes the time period between

Large Transport Band Gap Room Temperature â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Large Transport Band Gap Room Temperature? Answer: Introduction: Nature of business: Petroleum, cooking gas, construction materials, medical supplies and pharmaceuticals, home appliances, electronics, supermarket products and insurance. History: ATA (Athireemaafannu Trading Agency) was beginning off STO and became huge success in national development. ATA developed to become the State trading organization (STO) on 9th June 1979. STO took all trading as well as commercial activity on behalf of the Maldivian government. In keeping pace with demands STO started importing more for reasons increasing number of commodity items, modern construction materials, home appliances and consumer goods. Focus of project: This report includes discussion about STOs sources of finance whether long or short, dividend policy and profitability. Company profile: STO wants to lead through expansion, assortment, analyse advance areas of expertise and joining latest business deal. It also wants to explore internationally and establish themselves as international player which is honoured by international business community. STO also wants approachability with nationwide existence; it offers peace of mind and assurance to public of uninterrupted provision. It wants to build a skilled workforce by developing human force. STO also want to achieve environmental and sustainable growth with fulfilling their vision. STO with its group is a successful business leader. It also has keen and focused interest in petroleum, cooking gas and so on. The company is becoming geographically diversified with its operations in Maldives and Singapore as well. This is achieved with direct procurement and distribution over nations hence creating new joint ventures to trade effectively. STO also focused in exploring in tourism sector. Upcoming projects in areas of hospitality making it a big player and due to which it started earning more foreign currency. Long term sources of finance Equity: Equity consists of fund that is contributed by shareholders in a company. It is called s primary market when new shares are issued to investor by the company. Equity is one of the most preferred sources of capital (Baker and Powell 2005, pp 44-70). It shows how much part of capital of STO is shared with shareholder. As STO is developing company and needs contribution by shareholder so STO should issue more equity share in order to increase capital. Equity is comparatively as compared to debt. Equity of company= ordinary shares= 56,345,500. Debt: Debt refers to a duty or liability to pay money and provide service. It is the most common form of outside capital for new businesses (Baker and powell 2005, pp 44-70). Debt part of STO is 778,315,651. This means company is preferring loan more in proportion to equity. This shows company does not want to dilute power with other shareholder. Embedded: In embedded capital structure, a ratio between equity and debt is used to finance companys capital. This capital structure helps company to build effective portfolio and develop balance between risk associated with company and returns earned by company. In case of STO, the proportion between equity and debt that is more than 60% debt and remaining equity. Optimum capital structure: It is a financial measurement that is used by companies to determine best mix of debt and equity financing. Optimum structure helps in lowering cost of capital of company. It helps company to be more dependent on equity rather than debt. It seeks the degree of risk that fluctuate the return calculated by company more than its cost of capital (Brinckman Salomo and Gemuenden, 2011). STO is having two types of financing option available with it. Two options are equity and debt, company should opt for other finance options as well in lieu of more capital requirement. MM theory: This theory supports capital structure irrelevancy theory, which suggests that valuation of firm is irrelevant to capital structure of company. MM theory defined that market value of firm is decided by its earning power and by the risk of latent assets, and value of firm is autonomous of way it chooses to capitalise its upcoming project (Humphrey Loft and Woods 2009). According to MM valuation of STO is not dependent on its market value of different finance sources. It totally depends on earning power of STO and valuation is done in autonomous way it decides. Agency theory: Agency theory derives the conflict between corporate managers (principal) and outside shareholders (agent). This conflict leads to agency costs (Baker and Gerald 2011). Agency theory supposes that dividend mechanism proves as solution to principal/agent relationship related agency costs. It resolves the issue between managerial and stockholder priorities (Fong Tosi 2007). In case of STO company and shareholder can be in conflict due to legal or ethical practices adopted by STO. Managers may make decisions that conflict with the best interests of the shareholders. Another problem can be between managers and shareholders related to increase in size of firm which may be beneficial for shareholders but managers may not adopt due to decrease in their ownership in company. This impairs the goodwill of company so STO should resolve agency problem if it is existing between shareholders and managers. Solving agency problem with below suggestions: Adopting more legal and ethical practices to retain shareholders Adopting practices best in interest of both parties. Managerial compensation: The firm can pay incentive compensation to combine the goals of executive and shareholders. The company can provide performance share, stock options, salaries and bonuses to award superior performance and penalize poor performance. Direct shareholder intervention: Shareholder can intervene in decision related to corporate issues by using their voting power and electing members in board of director to present their interests. Pecking theory: The pecking order theory of capital structure is believes that management have inside information (Li, Wei, and Lie 2006). Donaldson study suggests the pecking order of financing specifies that firms can finance their requirement through many options like: raise debt or convertible debt, will issue equity, or will finance through internal sources of income. Free cash flow hypothesis explains that managers have nature to misuse the fund available. For reducing this misuse debt is considered as good option as this checks the indiscretion. In case of STO company has good amount of retained earnings available, so STO should finance its new project with its retained earnings. This helps company to not to dissolve its control over STO. It can adopt different options also like free cash flows, debt option and equity financing. CAPM theory: The CAPM calculates the return that an investment made by company can earn. It measures required return based on risk measurement. According to CAPM, investors select investments as they are wealth maximizers, based on some return and standard deviation. Investors can lend and can take loan at zero risk rates (Kumar et ol 2008). There are no flotation cost and taxes. All financial assets are fully marketable that means any quantity of asset can be purchased or sold. In STO, CAPM theory can define that shareholder can purchase any amount of shares and can lend any amount of loan to company. According to CAPM, STO all assets are fully marketable and no floatation cost and taxes exists, thus enabling shareholder to trade frequently. The capital gearing ratio of firm is highly geared this signifies that company is using less stockholders equity. The ideal capital gearing ratio is near to 50%. The ratio of STO is more than 50% showing greater risk, so it should take some steps to reduce risk. Its gearing ratio highlighting the firm inefficiency to pay debt on time. Hence creating issues in taking finance from banks in future. Short term sources of finance: Liquidity: Liquidity defines how quickly money through current asset can be converted in cash in hand. It can also be define as emergency savings account which can be accessed at time of unforeseen happening (Hill 2013). In case of STO liquidity is calculated with help of two ratios both are near to ideal hence it can be said that STO is having suffircient liquidity. Current ratio: It is a financial ratio which shows the proportion between current asset to current liability. It is used as an indicator of companies liquidity (Xia et al., 2010). Ideal current ratio is 2:1.The higher the current ratio, higher the capability of a company to pay its obligations. In case of STO the current ratio is less than ideal ratio so STO should take steps to reach ideal ratio. Company is not utilising its current asset properly. Quick ratio: It is a financial ratio used to check companys liquidity. This ratio is also named as acid test ratio. This ratio calculates proportion between cash and marketable securities to current liabilities. Ideal ratio is 1:1. In case of STO it is more than 1:1, so it should bring down to ideal to maintain efficiency. Working capital management 2016 2015 Current ratio 1.35 times 1.38 times Quick ratio 1.04 times 1.06 times Cash conversion cycle: The cash conversion cycle is a measure which defines duration of time in days that is taken by company to convert resource inputs into cash flow (Ebben Johnson 2011). CCC is calculated with help of inventory turnover, debtors turnover and creditors turnover. Inventory turnover ratio is 7.53 times in 2016 showing good amount of stock with company and debtors turnover ratio in 2016 is 32 times and creditors turnover ratio is 3.38 times. After converting these ratios in days converting cash conversion cycle in negative showing desirable result, this means STO do not have to pay to stock debtor or material supplier until the final sale is done. STO is utilising its working capital well and thus making readily available cash for other expenses and things. It also says that STO is not paying to is creditors until debtors are pay. Negative cash conversion cycle reduces cost of capital and increases overall profitability. Year/particular 2016 2015 Cash conversion cycle (-48days) (-40days) Dividend policy: Definition: It refers to decision of board regarding distribution of residual earnings which should be appropriated to shareholders of company. Companies have no legal obligation to pay dividends to common shareholders (Denis Osobov 2008). Dividend policies involve mainly decisions regarding: to retain earning for capital investment, to distribute earning in form of dividend, or to retain some and distribute remaining. Dividend policies can be of various types like regular dividend, stable dividend and irregular dividend (Baskin, 1988). Company has progressive policy of dividend distribution after 2014. The new strategy adopted in 2015 with the expectation of enhancing and guaranteeing the continuance of these exercises while in the meantime to distinguish new potential regions of speculation with the goal that they are concentrating on the expansion and development. These activities made STO to distribute more dividends in 2016. An analysis of dividend distribution over 5 years is shown in following chart MM dividend irrelevance theory: MM theory defines that shareholders are indifferent to payment of dividends because they can initiate any dividend policy they desire. (Miller, Merton and Kevin, 1985). The theory is in contrast to dividend relevance theory, which assumes dividend policys importance in valuation of company. In case of STO, dividends pay-outs are regular and paid least in 2014, company shares would have sold out more in 2014 as dividend payment was less and people would have bought in 2015. Highest purchase of STO shares in 2016 as highest dividend pay-out by company. MM theory defines this concept that shareholders are attracted more towards that company which has high dividend pay-out. Birds in hand concept: Birds in hand is a theory that supposes that investor would prefer dividend over shares to promising capital gain because of unpredictability of later one (Bhattacharya. 2009) . Under bird in hand theory, stocks having higher returns are purchased by investors and that stock establishes a higher market price. According to this theory STO stock will be sold more as the dividend payout in 2016 is highest and encouraging people to purchase STO shares. As according to bird in hand theory, shareholder will prefer more dividend payment rather than high capital gain. This will enhance company shares in market to sell more. Profitability: Profitability can be defined as primary income source and goal for all companies (Lesakova 2007).It is calculated with revenue and cost incurred by company, income is produced with activities performed by business and expenses are cost of material and labour used in producing that income(Miller Merton and Modigliani. 1961). Expanding revenue is main task of business experts. The profitability of company STO has increased in year 2012 and 2013. It decreased after 2013, so company should take steps to increase again. Profitability ratios of STO are satisfactory and have increased in comparison to previous years. Company can adopt following practices to increase profitability: Invest in profitable venture to expand the business. Enhance employee skills so that can contribute more in growth of STO in future. Reduce unnecessary wastage during to increase productivity. Reduce cost of transportation and raw material to minimise the production cost. Thus competitive price of products. Commercial viability: It can be understood as business, product and service which have ability to compete with competitors effectively. STO products are generally commercial viable as they provide daily routine machinery products at competitive price to retain customers. Moreover it gives discount over products like Hitachi pumps, hammer drills, wall chaser and many more at discount price. It generally has price lower than its competitors to retain customers. Profitability ratios: Profitability ratios 2016 2015 ROCE( rate of capital employed)% 11.75% 22.35% Gross profit % 15.24% 17.96% Net profit % 4.51% 6.03% Profit trend analysis of 5 years: Pest analysis of STO: Political factor: Maldives is a presidential democracy, with chief executive as leader of government and state. The tax related regulation for company by government can affect its business both positively and negatively. Political stability can also influence company existing business due to imposing of new regulations by new government. Economic analysis: Maldivian economy largely based on tourism industry generating more than 28% of their GDP. STO can have impact on its sales if inflation is high and vice versa. The unemployment rate also can hinder company growth as high rate of unemployment will stop people to purchase company products (Jennifer. 2017).. Business cycle faced by companies also affects its business as in boom time it can have high sale and in depression time lower sale affecting growth of business. Social analysis: Poverty in Maldives is due to regional inequalities in surviving conditions which arise because of remoteness of island and poor infrastructure (Barney 1991). Social analysis of STO, different cultural limitations affects company sales, as company cannot produce every type of product that customer demand. It depends upon STO marketers to shape different customer demand and enable them to purchase STO products. Technology analysis: Government spends in research and development programme in those sectors which generates high GDP. If some technology advancement is introduced and demand of STO product is decreased due to new launch, hindering the sale of company product. Sometime due to this company has to sell out-dated product at loss as well, lowering company growth. Minsky analysis: Minsky analysis began with recognition that post war economy is different, before war depression was continuous event and happening every quarter. It involves different sets of prices. First set for current output like consumption, investment and so on. And another set for asset pricing which includes capital asset used by firms in production. STO also should set different prices for its different products like consumption related product in different price category and investment related products in different price category. This analysis makes company product comparable with other firms. Minsky analysis involves two set of prices, first set includes prices of current output including consumption, products, services and many more. Other set includes prices of capital assets used by STO in production and finance enabling company to attain control over capital. The second set enables STO to determine the position of company to invest in project. These two sets vary in dependently according to market prices. Minsky analysis involves 3 types of financing to increase viability: Hedge finance: Income is expected to fulfill the debt arose during the time Speculative finance: It suggests STO to cover debt cost as income will be sufficient only to fulfill interest cost of STO. Ponzi finance: This suggests STO that income is less than expected and is enable to cover interest cost as well. So to cover this firm must sell assets to pay the debt. Recommendation: STO is company which is trying to establish itself in Maldives which is growing economy. So it is good to invest in company as ratios are performing quiet good. Current ratio is near to ideal ratio of 2:1 and quick ratio is also satisfactory. Due to fluctuations are their over years, shareholders sometimes hesitate to invest in risk taker company so company should try to establish growth in developing economy. Company also should take steps for increasing sales to enhance profitability which has decreased over according to profitability company shareholder will be reluctant to stay over years. Capital gearing ratio is more than 50% making company more risky. Company policy to distribute dividend every year is attracting as company is not keeping earnings to itself. Overall it a growing company trying to excel in upcoming year so before investing a proper analysis should be taken. Company should expand worldwide its business to enhance profitability and goodwill amongst all. It also should reduce its capital expenditure in order to enhance production cost. Conclusion: In brief it can be say that STO of Maldives is growing company and exporting its services internationally. It has good growth structure and opportunities within economy. The financial analysis of company shows that it is a risk taker that means it prefers debt more over equity. Company dividend policy is growing which defines that company distributes its earning every year to its shareholders and does not accumulate profits as retained earnings. Profitability of company is growing over years hence company can grow to fully fledge with little efforts. All profitability ratios as observed above as increased in comparison to previous years. But recently in previous two year it decreased in comparison to past. Company is trying to explore its activity in tourism sector as well. References: Baker H.K and Powell. E.G., 2005. Understanding Financial Management. Blackwell Publishing. USA. Baker, H.K, and Gerald, S. 2011 Capital Structure and Corporate Financing accounting Decisions, John wiley sons, Hoboken. Barney, J. 1991 Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management, 17(1), pp. 99-121. Baskin, Jonathan Barron. 1988. 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